Sunday, January 6, 2013

Just the Basics – The Bolt Action Rifle


Ruger M77 7mm Rifle Nomenclature

The Barrel is the component that allows the bullet to exit the carbine after it is fired and adds a spin to the bullet to increase its accuracy.

The Muzzle is the region immediately at the end of the Barrel where the bullet exits.

The Fore Grip provides an area for the shooter to grasp the front portion of the weapon to assist in steadying if for a sturdy shot.

The Breech provides a port for loading the Magazine with fresh cartridges as well as acting as the ejection port while working the Bolt to eject a spent cartridge.

The Bolt acts as the ejection tool to remove a spent casing, the ram to insert a new cartridge into the chamber, it contains the Firing Pin which will fire the cartridge when the Trigger is pressed and it is part of the containment system to contain the energy of the cartridge and help force its gasses down the barrel and out the muzzle. The Bolt is manipulated by using the Bolt Handle. The Bolt Handle is lifted and the Bolt is move to the rear. This ejects a spent cartridge from the chamber. The Bolt is then shoved forward stripping a new cartridge from the Magazine and inserting it in the chamber. The Bolt is then pushed down, locking the Bolt in place.

The Trigger is the component that releases the firing pin.

The Trigger Guard is provided to protect the shooter from an unintended discharge due to clothing, brush or other item the Trigger may bump against.

The Stock provides three major weld points to the shooter’s body; The Comb is welded to the shooter’s cheek, the Butt Plate to the shooter’s shoulder and the Grip is firmly grasped by the shooter’s dominant hand.

Also located on the Stock are a Front Sling Point and a Rear Sling Point used to attach a portion of a weapon sling to carry the weapon easily on the shooter’s body. A Sling – typically a “Two Point” Sling - is used to hang the weapon from the shooter’s body.

The Safety prevents the Trigger from being pressed to the rear unless it has been released by the shooter. (NOTE: Safeties are mechanical devices and can fail!!!)

This particular configuration of the Ruger M77 incorporates a telescopic site to provide a solid sight picture at extended distances. Like any device, it has a specific set of vocabulary to describe its different components.

The Ocular Lens is that lens group that is closest to the shooter’s eye. The Eye Bell is the housing that contains the Ocular Lens group.

The Elevation Turret is used to adjust the bullet’s impact point either up or down. The Windage Turret is used to adjust the bullet’s impact point either left or right. A Saddle is used to marry these two adjustment groups together on the scope.

An Object Lens group is contained in the Objective Bell and is at the front end of the scope. A Tube connects the Eye Bell to the Objective Bell. Mounting Rings hold the Tube in place and mount it to the top of the rifle.


  1. Replies
    1. Thank you, I think this was the last one on my list. Sure I'll find more down the road, but for now I think I got 'em all!

  2. How a Bolt Action rifle works ... like to see the finer points of difference between the Mauser action and the Enfield. ..good reflex sight